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In this learning cycle, novice teachers learn to lead group discussions in social studies through studying, preparing for, enacting, and reflecting upon discussions. The materials put a particular emphasis on discussions of public issues and advancing justice through group discussion.

Select a quadrant below to view related activities:
Novice teachers familiarize themselves with a framework for discussion in social studies, participate in a discussion about a public issue, and study video of classroom discussion.
Novice teachers study lesson plans for public issues discussions then prepare their own discussion and workshop their materials with peers. They also prepare questions that can spark discussion.
Novices rehearse discussion with their peers and with the guidance of a teacher educator before teaching their public issues exploration in a classroom with K-12 students.
Novices study quality reflections then analyze the discussion they led by viewing video of their teaching with peers and engaging in personal reflection using the discussion framework as a guide.
Leading a discussion in Social Studies

References and readings for teacher educators

Cohen, E. G., & Lotan, R. A. (1995). Producing equal-status interaction in the heterogeneous classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 32(1), 99-120.

Grossman, P. (2018). Teaching core practices in teacher education. Cambridge: Harvard Education Press.

Lampert, M., Franke, M. L., Kazemi, E., Ghousseini, H., Turrou, A. C., Beasley, H., Cunard, A., & Crowe, K. (2013). Keeping it complex: Using rehearsals to support novice teacher learning of ambitious teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(3), 226-243.

McDonald, M., Kazemi, E., & Kavanagh, S. S. (2013). Core practices and pedagogies of teacher education: A call for a common language and collective activity. Journal of Teacher Education64(5), 378-386.

Reisman, A., Kavanagh, S. S., Monte-Sano, C., Fogo, B., McGrew, S. C., Cipparone, P., & Simmons, E. (2017). Facilitating whole-class discussions in history: A framework for preparing teacher candidates. Journal of Teacher Education69(3), 278-293.

Teacher Education by Design. (2014). University of Washington College of Education.

Relevant readings for novice teachers

Cohen, R. (1998). Making cooperative learning equitable. Educational leadership, 56(1).

Hess, D. E. (2004). Discussion in social studies: Is it worth the trouble? Social Education, 68(2), 151-157.

Parker, W. C., & Hess, D. (2001). Teaching with and for discussion. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(3), 273-289

Parker, W. (2003). Learning to lead discussions. Teaching democracy. New York: Teachers College Press.